Author: Alex Ivanov

Why Rail Under Road is possible at Seaford

The Seaford technical report (available at states:

LXRA Myth… When considering the best way to remove the Seaford Road level crossing, environmental factors are particularly challenging in terms of groundwater flows, flooding and potential impacts to the nearby Edithvale-Seaford wetlands and Kananook Creek.

These environmental problems ruled out the building of a trench at this site. This image shows the underground conditions at Seaford. In Seaford, there are clay layers that are close to the surface.

A trench structure, combined with the clay, would change groundwater flow, as water would need to divert around the trench. This means that water levels on the inland side could rise, causing potential impacts to the wetlands. Water levels on the coastal side could fall, which would in turn affect the environmental values of Kananook Creek.

Image from LXRA technical report

More details about “hybrid solution” – see at LXRASeafordReport

Edithvale_Seaford_Wetlands_Ecological_Character_Description (2) (1)

We have 3 points to consider here:

1. Groundwater issues have been successfully tackled on many sites on Mornington Peninsula, and everywhere else in the world.

Groundwater obstacles can be overcome at the Seaford Rd site just like any other site. A number of train stations have ground water pumps. A more challenging example is of Martha Cove road tunnel under the water channel, close to the shore.

Road tunnel under water at Safety Beach – Martha Cove

2. Seaford Wetlands has own engineering controls for water levels

Seaford Wetlands are now largely Artificial and Actively managed with current engineering controls that regulate the hydrological operations controlling the water coming in and out from the various sources. Water levels are regulated through the various cells and then in turn the water is released to storm water drains or the Kananook creek via further engineering controls.

There would be no change to water levels at the Seaford Wetlands with the Rail under solution, due to the current engineering controls designed to regulate the hydro-logical operation of the area.

In an effort to fast track the Seaford Rd level crossing removal the LXRA have skipped detailed technical investigations at the Seaford Rd site. They have not looked into the current engineering controls at the Seaford wetlands, which could manage the water levels of the Seaford wetlands with a rail under road solution

3. The proposed train trench is short and shallow

 The proposed solution, based on surveying and 3D modelling data demonstrates that the actual trench would be a maximum of around 180 meters either side of the level crossing before it is back at the current level of the RF Miles Reserve 1.5 AHD. Any embankments above and beyond this would be soft planted ones to match the current landscape.

The Health Impact of Elevated Rail on Bayside Communities

The Health Impact of Elevated Rail on Bayside Communities

The academic literature shows that proposed elevated rail bridges negatively impact the health of
individuals and communities. The World Health Organisation recommends ‘health in all policies’ which includes consideration of the health impacts of large infrastructure projects on populations (Leppo, Ollila,Pena, Wismar, & Cook, 2013.)

Elevated rail adjacent to residential areas increases noise and vibration, reduces natural light,
reduces property values, increases air pollution, impacts green space and clashes with local amenity. It also attracts crime, compromises safety and impacts the social determinants of health. All of these factors negatively impact health. A ‘rail under road‘ or ‘rail trench option’ will not have these deleterious effects on health.

Noise and Vibration
The literature indicates that noise and vibration increases significantly and travels greater distances
with elevated rail. Xia et al. (2009) reports noise concerns and vibration impacts on the environment and people near elevated rail. Research shows a link to sleep disturbance resulting in fatigue, impaired judgement, poor decision-making and an increased risk of occupational and road accidents. (Killgore, Balkin & Wesensten, 2006; Lamond et al; 2004.) Stickgold, Hobson, Fosse & Fosse (2001) state good quality sleep is a public health issue, essential for optimal health. Insufficient sleep is linked to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression (Unruh et al. 2008; Babisch, 2006.) Passchier-Vermeer and Passchier (2000) associate noise with decreased school performance. The negative health impact associated with noise pollution from rail bridges will impact thousands of homes and community facilities such as schools, kindergartens, churches and aged care homes.

Mental Health
Elevated rail bridges will significantly overshadow homes. The impact of reduced sunlight on mental
health is well supported in the literature (Halpern, 2013.) Multiple studies assert that a lack of natural light increases the risk of mental health issues including depression and anxiety (Edwards & Torcellini, 2002.)
The Office of the Victorian Government Architects (OVGA) reported on lessons learned with level
crossing removals (2014.) They state that an elevated rail structure will have a significant impact on a place and is typically not a preferred solution. Elevated rail is often a cheaper solution but offers a poorer outcome for the community. Rail bridges also impact negatively on visual amenity, permeability, viability of activity areas and the value of land. Close proximity to rail infrastructure (particularly heavy diesel) reduces property values due to noise, visual intrusion and the perception of crime (Diaz, 1999.) These factors would be exacerbated by elevated rail. On the Dandenong line it is predicted that elevated rail sections are likely to reduce property values by 20-25% and negatively affect the revenue of small businesses (Zhou & Robb, 2016, Ferguson, 2014.) Uncertainty about income is proven to induce emotional strain, anger, anxiety and depression (Schonfeld & Mazzola, 2015.) In other contexts mortgage stress and financial strain is a risk factor for conflict, mental illness and domestic violence (Pattavina, Socia & Zuber, 2015.)

Air Pollution
Elevated rail carrying diesel trains is likely to increase the amount and distance travelled of airborne
pollution because height facilitates greater drift. Diesel exhaust emissions contain hundreds of chemical compounds that are associated with irritation of the eye and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems (Balmes, 2011.) The long term effects of exposure to exhaust and brake particulate matter are poorly understood and therefore best avoided. (Morawska, Moore & Ristovski, 2004, Stenfors et al., 2004; Abbasi, Jansson, Sellgren & Olofsson, 2013.) The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognised diesel exhaust soot as a carcinogen (Abbasi et al., 2013.)

Green Space and Amenity
Elevated rail bridges will negatively impact green space and clash with amenity in the Bayside
suburbs. This area along the line includes 40 km of beachfront, the Edithvale/Seaford ‘Ramsar Convention’ listed wetlands and a 2,070 hectare ‘green wedge’ in the city of Kingston alone. The positive link between green space and health is well documented and most apparent in the elderly and people of lower socioeconomic status, both already vulnerable sub-populations. (Maas, Verhiej, Groenewegen, De Vries & Spreeunwenberg, 2006; Mitchell & Popham 2008.) The visible and audible elevated rail will significantly reduce the health benefits of this green space.

Crime and Safety
Graffiti is a visible form of crime and considered a sign of social decline, representing a threat to
safety and quality of life (Morgan & Louis, 2009; Lorenc et al., 2013.) Elevated railway bridges and pylons attract graffiti because they are prominent, visible and easy to reach with limited surveillance. Controlling and removing graffiti in Australia costs $1.5 billion annually (Morgan and Louis, 2009.)This cost is expected to be borne by local councils along the Frankston line, creating further stress to residents. Railway bridges also attract anti-social behaviour such as dumping, drug use and loitering due to reduced lighting and limited surveillance. This impacts community safety and livability. Under-road stations are easier to illuminate and monitor and are less appealing for anti-social behaviour.
Social determinants of health (SDH)
The SDH will be negatively impacted by elevated rail. A Lancet Commission found that factors which
have the greatest impact on health are social and include community engagement, social inclusion and early life (Marmot, Friel, Bell, Houweling & Taylor, 2008.) Liveable communities create conditions that optimise health and well being outcomes by improving neighbourhood walk-ability, public open space and social facilities (Giles-Corti, Badland, Mavoa, Turrell & Bull, 2014.) An elevated concrete construction will divide communities and impinge on these conditions, negatively impacting the health and well being of the community.

We often assume that what is, has to be. In reality, virtually everything in our built environment is
the way it is because someone designed it that way. Researchers agree that the design of the built
environment holds tremendous potential to address health concerns including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, depression, violence and social inequity. In short, we have the capacity to build future communities that promote, rather than reduce, physical and mental health (Jackson, 2003.) The OVGA states that lowering a section of the rail corridor is the most supportable solution in most circumstances, is more discrete, has the least impact on the urban environment and improves social and economic outcomes (2014.)
The academic evidence portrays a strong case against elevated rail. A rail trench is the preferred
option for the Bayside suburbs on the Frankston line.

No Sky Rail: Frankston Line
October 27th 2016

Reference List
● Abbasi, S., Jansson, A., Sellgren, U. and Olofsson, U. (2013.)Particle emissions from rail traffic: A
literature review. Environmental Science and Technology.
● Babisch, W. (2006) Transportation noise and cardiovascular risk: Updated Review and synthesis of
epidemiological studies indicate that the evidence has increased. Noise Health, 8, 1-29
● Balmes, J.R (2011) How does diesel exhaust impact asthma? Thorax, 66(1), 4-6.
● Diaz, RB (1999) Impacts of Rail Transit on Property Values. Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. McLean VA
● Edwards L. & Torcellini P (2002) A literature review of the effects of natural light on building occupants. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
● Ferguson, I. (2014.) Compensating for Economic Loss Caused By New Projects. Australia and New
Zealand Property Journal, June 589- 592.
● Giles-Corti, B., Badland, H.M., Mavoa, S., Turrell, G. & Bull, F. (2014.) Reconnecting urban planning with health: a protocol for the development and validation of national liveability indicators associations with noncommunicable disease risk behaviours and health outcomes. Public Health Research Practice, 25(1), 1-5.
● Groenewegen, P., van den Berg, A.E., de Vries, S. & Verheij, R.A. (2006) Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety. BMC Public Health, 23(2), 109-123.
● Halpern, D. (2013>)Mental Health and the Built Environment. Routledge, London.
● Jackson, R.J (2003) The impact of the built environment on health: An emerging field. Editorial.
American Journal of Public Health, 93(9.)
● Killgore, W.D.S., Balkin, T.J., & Wesensten, N.J. (2006) Impaired decision making following 49h of sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 15(1), 7-13.
● Lamond, N., Dorrian, J., Burgess, H.J., Holmes, A.L., Roach, G.D., McCulloch, K., Fletcher, A. & Dawson, D.
(2004) Adaptation of performance during a week of simulated night work. Ergonomics, 47(2), 154-165.
● Leppo, K., Ollila, K., Pena, S., Wismar, M. & Cook, S. (2013) Health in all policies – seizing opportunities,implementing policies. WHO.
● Lorenc T., Petticrew, M., Whitehead, M., Neary, D., Clayton, S., Wright, K., Thomson, H., Cummins, S., Sowden, A., Renton, A. (2013) Fear of crime and the environment: systematic review of the UK
qualitative evidence. BMC Public Health, 2013, 13, 496.
● Office of Victorian Government Architects (2014) Level crossing removals lessons learned.
● Maas J, Verhiej R.A., Groenewegen P.P., De Vries S. & Spreeunwenberg P. (2006) Green space, urbanity and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(7), 587-592.
● Marmot, M., Friel, S., Bell, R., Houweling, T. A. J. & Taylor, S. (2008) Closing the gap in generation:
health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Lancet, 372(9650), 1661-1669.
● Mitchell, R & Popham F. (2008) Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an
observational population study. Lancet, 372(9650), 1655-1660.
● Morawska, L., Moore, M.R. & Ristovski, Z.D. (2004) Health Impacts of Ultrafine Particles: Desktop
Literature Review and Analysis. Australian Government; Department of Environment and Heritage.
● Morgan, A. & Louis, E. (2009) Key Issues in Graffiti. Research in Practice. Australian Institute of
Criminology, No. 6
● Passchier-Vermeer, W. & Passchier, W.F. (2000) Noise exposure and public health. Environmental
Health Perspectives, 108(1), 123-131.
● Pattavina, A., Socia, K.M. & Zuber, M.J. (2016) Economic Stress and Domestic Violence: Examining the Impact of Mortgage Foreclosures on Incidents Reported to the Police. Justice Research and Policy, December 16, 147-164.
● Schonfeld, I.S. & Mazzola, J.J. (2015) A qualitative study of stress in individuals self-employed in solo businesses. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol 20(4), 501-513.
● Stenfors., Nordenhall, C., Salvi, S.S., Mudway, I., Sorderberg, M., Blonberg, A., … Sandstrom, T. (2004) Different airway inflammatory responses in asthmatic and healthy humans exposed to diesel. European Respiratory Journal, 23, 82-86.
● Stickgold, R., Hobson, J., Fosse, R. & Fosse, M. (2001) Sleep, learning and dreams: off line memory reprocessing. Science, 294(5544), 1052.
● Unruh, M.L., Redline, S., Ming-Wen, A., Buysse, D.J., Nieto, F.J., Yeh, J. & Newman, A. (2008) Subjective and objective sleep quality and ageing in the sleep heart health study. Journal for the American Geriatrics Society, 56(7), 1218-1227.
● Xia, H., Gao, F., Wu, X., Zhang, N., De Roeck, G. & Degrande, G. (2009) Running train induced vibrations and noises of elevated railway structures and their influences on the environment. Frontier Architecture Civil Engineering China, 3(1), 9-17.
● Zhou, C., Robb, K. (2016) Melbourne Skyrail and railway crossing removal impact property prices.

Geodetic survey of Seaford crossing

Please see the recent surveying results taken from Railway Pde, RF Miles Reserve and the Railway line in Seaford.

The surveying has shown what we already know, a rail-under solution is perfectly feasible at Seaford Rd and what you have been led to believe by the LXRA has been blown far out of proportion to justify the second rate solution they are trying to impose on our Suburb.

From this surveying data we have been able to create a 3D model of the landscape with the RF Miles Reserve, Railway Pde, Seaford Rd and the Train-line all included.

We can now see that the kilometre long bath tub analogy they have beaten like a dead horse is a complete lie, see for yourself.

Its no wonder LXRA would never provide any of the designs in section view as it would be plain as day the basis of their arguments were not factual but in fact just propaganda

This information has been given to the LXRA at a meeting with the NSRFL committee, they have agreed to review it, we will be actively seeking a follow up meeting to discuss the outcome of this review.

We have not given up on Seaford and are still fighting this, more to come in the following weeks. Don’t give up people, stay strong. This is far to important.It’s not over until it is under.

Based on this data, please see proposed solution for Seaford

AHD = “Australian Height Datum”

a standard point of reference that all surveying data is related back to, all LXRA documentation regarding Seaford Rd is referenced from the AHD as-well


Elevated rail bridges will significantly overshadow homes. The impact of reduced sunlight on mental
health is well supported in the literature (Halpern, 2013). Multiple studies assert that a lack of natural light increases the risk of mental health issues including depression and anxiety (Edwards & Torcellini, 2002.) Overshadowing of homes and a reduction of open sky reduces our sense of space, access to natural light and enjoyment of our outdoor environment.

Please find a simulation of the shadow cast by a single 11 m high pole at the crossing Seaford Road. You need to mentally move the shadow along the train line, to see how much of Seaford will be in shadow earlier.

The simulation is based on an 11 meter structure which would be the Skyrail and the train but doesn’t include the additional over head infrastructure.

The 11m tall Skyrail would cast a minimum 212 meter long shadow at 4:45 pm on 23rd June 2017, please follow the link below and check this for yourselves.,145.1304,17/2017.06.23/16:45/11/0

Graffiti and crime

Graffiti is a visible form of crime and considered a sign of social decline, representing a threat to safety and quality of life.

Graffiti at Beach Frankston

Graffiti is a visible form of crime and considered a sign of social decline, representing a threat to
safety and quality of life (Morgan & Louis, 2009; Lorenc et al., 2013.) Controlling and removing graffiti in Australia costs $1.5 billion annually (Morgan and Louis, 2009.) This cost is expected to be borne by local councils along the Frankston line, creating further stress to residents. Railway bridges also attract anti-social behaviour such as dumping, drug use and loitering due to reduced lighting and limited surveillance. This impacts community safety and liveability. Under-road stations are easier to illuminate and monitor and are less appealing for anti-social behaviour.

 Elevated rail bridges and pylons would likely attract graffiti because they are prominent, visible, easy to reach and may have limited surveillance.
• Railway bridges may attract other antisocial behaviour such as dumping, drug use and loitering due to reduced lighting and limited surveillance.
• Fear for safety impacts mental health, outdoor exercise and community access and engagement.

• Reduced community participation is linked to obesity, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory disease and diabetes.

Graffiti along a train line in Melbourne

Rail under road options require patrolled, well lit stations and therefore limit areas for antisocial behaviour.
Rail under road options maintain social inclusion, walk-ability and amenity.

Seaford Rd Rail Under Solution

LXRA claims Seaford rail under road option is not feasible, as it will require a railway trench -a “kilometre long bath tub” analogy. This is not true!

Please check Geodetic survey at Seaford rd crossing.

The designs below have been created by our engineering team to show how a Rail Under Road solution would work at the Seaford Rd level crossing.

Cross section of Rail Under Road solution under Seaford Road

A Rail Under Road solution would have the railway line lowered under Seaford Road.
This is similar to other Rail Under Road solutions such as at Darebin Road on the Hurstbridge line as shown below

Rail under at Darebin

Our solution would have the Railway level with the Rf Miles Reserve by Johnstone St:

Cross section at Johnston st

Sky Rail proposal will decimate your neighbourhood

Hybrid skyrail

The tracks for Sky Rail will be 7 metres above Railway Pde and 8 metres higher than RF Miles Reserve
The wiring and overhead gantry will be up to 17 metres high

  • Sky Rail will tower over all nearby housing, overshadowing them during the day.
  • Noise will travel across rooftops for miles around.
  • Pollution from the freight trains will be caught on the sea breezes and become airborne.
  • The total structure will be 17 metres high. This is the same as a 5-story office building.

Save our businesses and 100 local jobs

The relocation of the railway sidings from Carrum to Seaford will destroy 7 local businesses with the loss of over 100 Seaford jobs. None of the businesses have been issued a notice of acquisition. This is a short-term solution as new sidings will eventually be built at Baxter.

Keep Eel Race Road Open with RUR

There is also great concern about the closure of Eel Race Road as this will drive traffic north to McLeod Road or south to Armstrongs Road. We want Eel Race Road to remain open with the
railway line lowered below the road as it should be at every other crossing on the Frankston Line. We need to push for a RUR solution to avoid an extended Sky Rail from Carrum all the way through Seaford to Frankston

Seaford Rally Day

Say No to Sky Rail
Seaford Rally Day

Seaford Community Centre
Sunday 23rd July
This event had a wonderful turnout of residents. It was also attended by Frankston Councillors, 7 News and The Herald Sun.


* Guest Speakers *

Introductions Willem Popp
Who we are
Neil McCarthy = NSRFL Seaford Team
Seaford Update
Engineering ==== Paul Porter & Sean Wise
Rail Under Road option for Seaford
Eel Race Road = Fiona Tellesson
Local concerns
LOTI – Catherine Pendelich
Experiences of Dandenong Line Residents
FCC Rep – Glenn Aitken
FCC Rep – Quinn McCormack
Neil McCarthy = NSRFL Seaford
What community can do, next steps

We oppose:
1. The “Hybrid” Sky Rail that will divide our seaside community
This will scar our seaside landscape forever, creating overshadowing across neighbouring
The Sky Rail will throw noise across the suburb and allow carcinogenic diesel particulates
to spread to homes and schools.
2. The closure of seven local businesses
Seven Seaford businesses will be closed with the loss of over 100 jobs to make way for the
relocation of the Carrum sidings.
This is a short-term move until the sidings are moved to Baxter.
3. The closure of Eel Race Road
The ridiculous closure of Eel Race Road has had no community consultation.
This will put extreme traffic pressure on Railway Parade, Armstrongs Road, Mcleod Road and Nepean Highway.
How long before the Carrum Sky Rail is extended over Eel Race Road and on to Seaford Road?

Rail under Road CAN be achieved at Seaford Road. There is NO NEED to
relocate the Carrum sidings to Seaford. Eel Race Road must remain OPEN
with Rail under Road at Carrum.

What can you do?

Bring your friends and family to our RALLY

Show your community support

Our local member Sonya Kilkenny said:
“The Community has spoken …
… and I am committed to removing the level crossing at Seaford Road”
However the LXRA’s own figures show that over 97% of Seaford
residents want the level crossing removed by Rail Under Road.

Your actions determine the future of Seaford
Act now before it’s too late!