Author: Peter

Health Impact of Elevated Rail

See also: The Health Impact of Elevated Rail on Bayside Communities  –  A review of potential health impact for applying elevated rail options in the removal of level crossings along the Frankston rail line. – Submitted to LXRA in 2016.

The World Health Organisation recommends ‘health in all policies’ which includes consideration of the health impact of large infrastructure projects on populations (Leppo, Ollila, Pena, Wismar, & Cook, 2013.)

Academic literature shows that elevated rail bridges, such as those proposed for the Frankston Line, may negatively impact the health of individuals and communities.
(Refer to the submission to the LXRA, linked below for a full list of literature and references)

Elevated rail adjacent to residential areas may increase noise and vibration, reduce natural light, reduce property values, increase air pollution exposure, impact green space and clash with local amenities. It may also attract crime, compromise safety and impact the social determinants of health. All of these factors would negatively impact health. A ‘rail under road‘ or ‘rail trench option’ will not likely to have these deleterious effects on health.

“ Liveable communities create the conditions to optimise health and well-being outcomes in residents” (Giles-Corti, 2014)

Impact: Poor Sleep



• Noise and vibration may increase and travel greater distances with elevated rail
• Sleep disturbance can result in fatigue, impaired judgement, poor decision making and an increased risk of occupational and road accidents
• Good quality sleep is essential for optimal health
• Insufficient sleep is linked to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression
• Noise is associated with decreased school performance

Rail under road options contain noise and create a sound barrier to surrounding homes, schools and businesses.

Impact: Poor mental health

• Elevated rail lines and stations may cause significantly overshadowing of homes and gardens.
• Reduced sunlight is linked with poor mental health, increasing the risk of depression and anxiety.
• Overshadowing of homes and a reduction of open sky reduces our sense
of space, access to natural light and enjoyment of our outdoor environment.
• Reduced property values due to noise, visual intrusion and perception of crime significantly impact the financial and emotional stress of residents and traders.
• Uncertainty about income is proven to induce emotional stress, anger, anxiety and depression.
• Mortgage stress and financial strain have been found to be risk factors for relationship conflict, mental illness and domestic violence.

 

Rail under road options have less visual intrusion
Rail under road options do not overshadow or limit natural light
Rail under road options will not impact property prices due to visual impact

Air Pollution
Elevated rail carrying diesel trains is likely to increase the amount and distance travelled of air pollution because height facilitates greater drift. Diesel exhaust emissions contain hundreds of chemical compounds that are associated with irritation of the eye and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems (Balmes, 2011.) The long term effects of exposure to exhaust and brake particulate matter are poorly understood and therefore best avoided. (Morawska, Moore & Ristovski, 2004, Stenfors et al., 2004; Abbasi,Jansson, Sellgren & Olofsson, 2013.) The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognised dieselexhaust soot as a carcinogen (Abbasi et al., 2013.)

Impact: Respiratory illness

• Elevated rail may increase the amount and range of air pollutants due to greater drift.
• Diesel exhaust emissions contain hundreds of chemical compounds that are associated with irritation of the eye and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.
• The long term effects of prolonged exposure to exhaust and brake particulate matter are poorly understood and therefore best avoided.
• Diesel exhaust soot is a recognised carcinogen.

Rail under road options could reduce the distribution of air born particles

 

Impact: Fear and reduced safety

• Graffiti is a visible form of crime and considered a sign of social decline, representing a threat to safety and quality of life.
Elevated rail bridges and pylons would likely attract graffiti because they are prominent, visible, easy to reach and may have limited surveillance.
• Railway bridges may attract other antisocial behaviour such as dumping, drug use and loitering due to reduced lighting and limited surveillance.
• Fear for safety impacts mental health, outdoor exercise and community access and engagement.

• Reduced community participation is linked to obesity, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory disease and diabetes.

Rail under road options require patrolled, well lit stations and therefore limit areas for antisocial behaviour.
Rail under road options maintain social inclusion, walk-ability and amenity.

Health Impact of Elevated Rail Options – Submission to LXRA 2016

No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Download

A review of potential health impact for applying elevated rail options in the removal of level crossings along the Frankston rail line. – Submitted to LXRA in 2016.

Fact Sheet – Seaford Road

Seaford Road Level Crossing

Rail Under Road

Another 8 level crossings on the Frankston Line are due to be removed. Three have already been grade separated with a Rail Under Road solution: Ormond, Bentleigh and McKinnon. This article explains how Seaford Road can be Rail Under Road also.



Design Considerations

1. Rail Reserve
• A 40m wide railway reserve allowing “parallel” construction, similar to new Springvale station.
• A rail trench can be constructed alongside the current rail line which can remain in use.
• This would cut rail closure to just a few days to dig under the road.
2. Ground Water
• Groundwater levels are similar to current Rail Under Road sites (ie: Ormond) so can be dealt with as per other Rail Under Road projects.
3. Soil Type
• Local soil type (which may or may not be Acid Sulfate Soils) has supported railway operation for over 100 years. A correct concrete mix can be adapted for all conditions.
• Soil type (sand) can be supported with proper pile foundations, correct concrete mix, and soil anchors (as per Ormond.)
4. Roadway Clearance
• Only a 6 metre clearance is required to put Rail Under Road compared with 9 metres for Rail Over Road (aka Elevated Sky Rail.)
5. High Voltage Power Line

Site Assumptions

Groundwater Depth: Could be as low as 4 to 5 metres below average ground level.
(Source: Vic Govt Bore logs, www.vvg.org.au)
Soil Type: Coastal Dune Deposits (sand)
(Source: Victorian geology maps)
Traffic Volume: High, 17,400 vehicles/day 210 trains/day. Boom Gates down for average of 32 mins between 7am and 9am. (Source: LXRA community consultation information displays)
Other Factors: Kananook Creek 200m to the west of the crossing.

Rail Under Road – Advantages

Less Pollution
• Rail Under Road will also reduce, rather than increase, air-borne pollution.
• A rail trench will be much quieter than elevating the rail 9 metres in the air.
• Less visual pollution and less opportunity for graffiti
Retain Property Values
• Property values will be preserved or increased, rather than facing a 20% decline as predicted with Sky Rail, “elevated rail” or railway bridges
Less Council maintenance and increased rate revenue
• No extra cost to council for cleaning (graffiti, removing dumped rubbish, etc) under an elevated railway bridge if the crossings are put in trenches.
• No loss in rate revenue as property values will not decline.
Legacy Solution
• A Rail Under Road option will be a proper long-term infrastructure solution that will increase the amenity of area and leave a lasting legacy that will not be an eye sore for generations to come.

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What would you prefer?

No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Springvale Station Design
Rail Under Road station at Springvale
No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Skyrail over Hawaii
Sky Rail under construction in Hawaii

Fact Sheet – Bonbeach & Carrum

Bonbeach & Carrum Level Crossings
Bondi Road, Carrum Station, Eel Race Road

Rail Under Road

Another 8 level crossings on the Frankston Line are due to be removed. Three have already been grade separated with a Rail Under Road solution: Ormond, Bentleigh and McKinnon. This article explains how the Bonbeach & Carrum level crossing removals can be Rail Under Road also.

UPDATE: The LXRA have updated their position. Current public proposals claim the Bon Beach and Carrum Sky Rail sections will be separated. This only means there will be a ramp down from Bon Beach and another ramp up before Carrum, creating a small reduction in visual impact for the residents in between the two ramps. However, this will do nothing to reduce other impacts, such as those caused by increased diesel noise propagation.

 

UPDATE: The LXRA have released their design proposal to the Carrum community. The proposal claims a Rail Under Road solution must descend to 8 metres below grade and that there is not enough distance to ramp down from the Patterson River.

The LXRA documents have not included any justification for claiming 8 metres depth, when the bridge clearance required by the governing standards is only 5.75 metres*. Even at 7 metres deep, the structure supporting the road crossing could be more than a metre thick! Further, more supporting thickness could be achieved with a minor rise in the road crossing height, without effecting any existing road infrastructure.

Without providing supporting evidence, we can only assume that the extra depth the LXRA are claiming for Rail Under Road is a misrepresentation to make Rail Under appear less desirable and justify their Sky Rail Only claim to the Carrum community.

[*Victorian Rail Industry Operators Group Standards (VRIOGS) 001 Section 7, Figure 2, Envelope F-V5, relating to bridges, retaining walls, piers and structures adjacent to and above tracks used for passenger and or/freight services, other than interstate freight services.]

Community Preferences

Low Traffic Count
• The Bondi Road rail crossing has never been considered dangerous or congested by local residents.
• Low traffic count suggests the only reason this crossing was included was as a means of getting an elevated railway (Sky Rail) over the Patterson River.

Extend Station Street
• Carrum residents and business owners have stated their priority is to see a bridge extending Station Street over Patterson River to join Bonbeach to Carrum.
• Extending Station Street over Patterson River eliminates the need to do anything with Bondi Road saving $250M to $300M and further relieve perceived congestion.

Rail Under Road at Carrum Station
• Rail Under Road at Carrum is a sensible way to remove congestion and improves the amenity of the area by allowing relocation of the current crossing to a logical alignment south of McLeod Road.

Eel Race Road
• Continue Rail Under Road cutting south of relocated Carrum Station under Eel Race Rd.• This would ensure both these major thoroughfares have their crossings removed.

nsrfl_fs_bb-carrum_pc_1_0

Design Considerations

1. Ground Water
Groundwater levels are similar to current Rail Under Road sites (ie: Ormond) so not an issue.

2. Soil Type
Local soil type (which may or may not be Acid Sulfate Soils) has supported railway operation for over 100 years. Concrete mix can be adapted for all conditions.

3. Roadway Clearance
Only 6m clearance is required for Rail Under Road compared to 9m for Elevated Sky Rail.

4. Construction Method
Parallel construction utilising adjoining car parks similar to Springvale Rail Under Road.

5. Total Project Cost
Cheaper solution with $300m saving by not removing Bondi Road (local traffic can use extended Station St to access Carrum shopping centre).

Site Assumptions – Bondi Road, Bonbeach

Groundwater Depth: At least 6.5m below grade (Maybe lower).
(Source: Vic Govt Bore logs, www.vvg.org.au)
Soil Type: Coastal Dune Deposits (sand)
(Source: Victorian geology maps)
Traffic Volume: Low = 4,400 vehicles/day, 210 trains/day. Boom gates down for an average of 45 minutes from 7am to 9am (Source: LXRA community consultation information displays)

Site Assumptions – Station St, Carrum

Groundwater Depth: Approximately 5.5m below grade (Note: the pedestrian underpass is dry and many buildings have underground carparks).
(Source: Vic Govt Bore logs, www.vvg.org.au)
Soil Type: Coastal Dune Deposits (sand)
(Source: Victorian geology maps)
Traffic Volume: High, 11,800 vehicles/day, 210 trains/day. Boom gates down for an average of 49 minutes from 7am to 9am. (Source: LXRA community consultation information displays)
Other Factors: Minimum Right of Way = 23m. Distance from the river to the north side of McLeod/Thompson Rd is approximately 350m (allows 7 metre depth for rail under road). Distance from south side of McLeod/Thompson to Eel Race Road is 664m.

Site Assumptions – Eel Race Rd, Carrum

Groundwater Depth: Approximately 5m below grade (track level)
(Source: Vic Govt Bore logs, www.vvg.org.au)
Soil Type: Coastal Dune Deposits (sand)
(Source: Victorian geology maps)
Traffic Volume: Low, 5,500 vehicles/day, 210 trains/day. Boom gates down for an average of 21 minutes from 7am to 9am. (Source: LXRA community consultation information displays)
Other Factors: Minimum Right of Way = 23m. Kananook Creek 500 metres on the south side of Eel Race Road. Keep depth to 6 metres at Eel Race Road, so rail can return to grade in 300m, well before Kananook Creek.

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No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Sky Rail over beach community

 

Fact Sheet – Charman Road

Charman Road Level Crossing

Rail Under Road

Another 8 level crossings on the Frankston Line are due to be removed. Three have already been grade separated with a Rail Under Road solution: Ormond, Bentleigh and McKinnon. This article explains how Charman Road can be Rail Under Road also.

No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Charman Road Level Crossing

 

Design ConsiderationsNo Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Charman Road Level Crossing

1. Park Road
• Logic suggests that Park Road should be included in any Level Crossing removal. This would ensure both these major thoroughfares have their crossings
removed.

2. Raised Topography
• Cheltenham station is on a slight hill with the railway line rising up to the station and dropping off at both sides.
• Starting before Charman Road, a cutting would could be eased into the ground and only require a small gradient on the other side of Park Road to meet the existing track.

3. Ground Water
• Groundwater levels are similar to current Rail Under Road sites (ie: Ormond) so not an issue.

4. Soil Type
• Soil type (sand) can be supported with proper pile foundations, correct concrete mix, and soil anchors (as per Ormond).

5. Roadway Clearance
• Only a 6 metre clearance is required to put Rail Under Road compared with 9 metres for Rail Over Road (aka Elevated Sky Rail).

Site Assumptions

Groundwater Depth: Approximately 12m below grade (track level)
(Source: Vic Govt Bore logs, www.vvg.org.au)
Soil Type: Swamp and Lake Deposits / Inland Dune Deposits (silty clayey sand or sand)
(Source: Victorian geology maps)
Traffic Volume: High, 12,300 vehicles/day, 222 trains/day, Boom gates are down for an average of 35 minutes between 7am to 9am
(Source: LXRA community consultation information displays)
Other Factors: Distance from Park Road to the new Southland Station is over 1km.
Car parks surrounding station allow for parallel construction as carried out at Springvale.

Rail Under Road – Advantages

Less Pollution
• Rail Under Road will also reduce, rather than increase, air-borne pollution.
• A rail line in a cutting will be much quieter than elevating it 9m in the air.
• Less visual pollution and less opportunity for graffiti

Retain Property Values
• Property values will be preserved or increased, rather than facing a 20% decline as predicted with Sky Rail, “elevated rail” or railway bridges

Less Council maintenance and increased rate revenue
• No extra cost to council for cleaning (graffiti, removing dumped rubbish, etc) under an elevated railway bridge if the crossings are put in cuttings
• No loss in rate revenue as property values will not decline

Legacy Solution
• A Rail Under Road option will be a proper long-term infrastructure solution that will increase the amenity of area and leave a lasting legacy that will not be an eye sore for generations to come.
• Proposed Council development of the Cheltenham streetscape will not be dominated by an elevated rail.

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NSRFL - Kingston Council Cheltenham Proposal

Fact Sheet – Edithvale Road

Edithvale Road Level Crossing

Rail Under Road

Another 8 level crossings on the Frankston Line are due to be removed. Three have already been grade separated with a Rail Under Road solution: Ormond, Bentleigh and McKinnon. This article explains how Edithvale Road can be Rail Under Road also.

No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Edithvale Road Level Crossing

 

Design ConsiderationsNo Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Edithvale Road Level Crossing

1. Rail Reserve
One lane of Station St and Nepean Hwy could be used to run a temporary rail line while existing track is lowered.

2. Ground Water
Groundwater levels are similar to current Rail Under Road sites (ie: Ormond) so not an issue.

3. Soil Type
Soil type (sand) can be supported with proper pile foundations, correct concrete mix, and soil anchors (as per Ormond).

4. Roadway Clearance
Only a 6 metre clearance is required to put Rail Under Road compared with 9 metres for Rail Over Road (aka Elevated Sky Rail).

5. High Voltage Power Line
High voltage power lines on both side of railway line will need to be relocated.

6. Wetlands Drainage
Local wetlands are fed by drains to the north-west and discharges north to Mordialloc Creek.

Site Assumptions

Groundwater Depth: Approximately 6m below grade (track level)
(Source: Vic Govt Bore logs, www.vvg.org.au)
Soil Type: Coastal Dune Deposits (sand)
(Source: Victorian geology maps)
Traffic Volume: High, 13,400 vehicles/day, 210 trains/day, Boom gates are down for an average of 42 minutes between 7am to 9am
(Source: LXRA community consultation information displays)
Other Factors: Minimum Right of Way = 20m

Rail Under Road – Advantages

Less Pollution
• Rail Under Road will also reduce, rather than increase, air-borne pollution.
• A rail line in a cutting will be much quieter than elevating it 9m in the air.
• Less visual pollution and less opportunity for graffiti

Retain Property Values
• Property values will be preserved or increased, rather than facing a 20% decline as predicted with Sky Rail, “elevated rail” or railway bridges

Less Council maintenance and increased rate revenue
• No extra cost to council for cleaning (graffiti, removing dumped rubbish, etc) under an elevated railway bridge if the crossings are put in cuttings
• No loss in rate revenue as property values will not decline

Lower Overall Project Cost
• Project costs can be cut by $150 million less for a Rail Under Road solution if you skip one crossing by extending Station Street across Patterson River

Legacy Solution
• A Rail Under Road option will be a proper long-term infrastructure solution that will increase the amenity of area and leave a lasting legacy that will not be an eye sore for generations to come.

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No Sky Rail Frankston Line - NSRFL - Sky Rail over beach community

 

Community Rally Against Elevated Rail (aka Sky Rail)

NSRFL - Hundreds of Bayside residents rally against Elevated (Sky) Rails for the Frankston LineIn spite of poor weather, we’d like tothank the hundreds of residents who attended the rally against Sky Rail last Sunday, to “Walk Against Elevated Rail” from Chelsea to Edithvale.

NSRFL - Seven News
7News Melbourne -September 18th, 2016
Rising anger for sky rail continues as protestors unite

The No Sky Rail on Frankston Line Inc community association (NSRFL Group) would also like to extend our thanks to the Mayor Tamsin Bearsley (City of Kingston) and Mayor James Dooley (City of Frankston) who also came to address the rally and along with other local councillors, show their councils’ support for the community in fighting the state government’s plans for Elevated Rail along the Frankston rail line.

NSRFL - Even the dogs Say "No" to Sky Rail
Even the dogs Say “No” to Sky Rail

We also like to extend our appreciation to the members of Lower Our Tracks Incorporated, who took time out of there own battle on the Dandenong line to come over and express their support also.

NSRFL - Rally Against Elevated (Sky) Rail

NSRFL March in the CMM News
No Sky Rail protest makes front page of local community news paper.

Hundreds gathered at Victory Park in Chelsea to walk along the Nepean Highway to Edithvale, where a 10 metre high scissor lift, standing at just over half the height of the proposed Sky Rail and station structure, created a great visual aid for will literally overshadow our community.

Rail protests on march

 

 

Press Release 8 – Residents sceptical of Sky Rail “options”

PRESS RELEASE: Sunday 11th September 2016

Bayside residents are alarmed at the way the Level Crossing Removal Authority’s options for the Frankston railway line have been tailored to favour elevated railway bridges.

LXRA Sky Rail Frankston Line
ALP Members Paul Edbrooke (Frankston) and Tim Richardson (Mordialloc) watch on as Jacinta Allan (Minister for Public Transport) announces at least 3 level crossings will be replaced by sections of elevated rail on the Frankston Line. (Photo: Level Crossing Removal Authority)

Five out of the remaining eight crossings to be removed on the Frankston Line have been given two options: an elevated rail bridge or sinking the railway line into a cutting passing below the crossing. Two crossings have been combined into one Railway Bridge solution and another single crossing will become a railway bridge.

Of the five crossings that have two “options”, the LXRA has overplayed the benefits of going over, and underplayed the negative impacts such as health concerns from noise and pollution and visual amenity.

The “pros” and “cons” are also clearly biased against Rail Under Road. For instance, the literature claims that barriers will be needed for a rail under option and these are listed as a negative. Alterations to cycle ways for Rail Under are given a maximum negative rating while the possibility of additional bike paths for the Rail Bridge option are given a positive rating.

At the same time glossy marketing material all but ignores community sentiment. Over 4,000 anti-Sky Rail comments from the first round of community consultation in March have been reduced to one 19-word paragraph:

“Many people expressed their preference for a trenched rail solution to preserve the beachside community and the seaside charm.” (my emphasis.)

No Sky Rail on Frankston Line community association president, Willem Popp, says it is clear that the LXRA are biased towards building railway bridges along the Frankston Railway line despite overwhelming community opposition.

“It is stunning that community sentiment – our preference – has been reduced to just 19 words,” Mr Popp said. “It was quite clear from the consultation sessions in March that the community do not want Elevated Rail in any form. To have over 4,000 comments to this effect reduced to just 19 words is insulting and plain stupid.

“Furthermore, why use the negative “trench” description, when it will actually be a “cutting”. This shows the LXRA’s bias against Rail Under Road,” Mr Popp said.

“Does the LXRA really think they can treat the community in this manner? Do they really think we will believe their propaganda and just roll over and let them do whatever they want? The answer is No. We will not be bullied into allowing them to build a solution that is simply not acceptable to the community.”

nsrfl_flyer_waer_20160918_thumb
Flyer – Walk Against Elevated Rail

With community opposition growing by the day, the No Sky Rail Community Group are organising a massive Walk Against Elevated Sky Rail next Sunday, September 18th. The walk will start in Victory Park in Chelsea at 10:30am and finish at 12noon in the Esplanade, Edithvale.

“We are asking the community to come out and show their opposition to any form of Rail Over”, Mr Popp said. “We need to show the government that we will not allow them to ride rough-shod over bayside communities.”

The mayors of both Kingston and Frankston will address the rally. The No Sky Rail community group will also present their own options for each of the eight crossings under consideration for removal.

(Download Flyer as PDF here)

Utilities

Say NO To Sky Rail (Skyrail) - Frankston Line - Engineering
Mc Kinnon Station – Old Service Ducts

Relocation of utilities is a consideration on every large construction project and is business as usual. It is not the insurmountable problem represented in Government and LXRA’s media spin.

We are currently unaware of any large utility easements of concern.

Given the long lead times before construction begins, we would expect that LXRA and the Utility companies would be communicating any concerns.

Water

Updated 11/09/2016

1. Ground Water

So far, our reviews of publicly available information have indicated that the approximate ground water levels are lower than the depth of excavation.  Where the ground water levels are lower than the excavation level, neither dewatering or exclusion walls are required. However, seasonal fluctuations are possible, so we have discussed temporary and permanent exclusion below.

Temporary exclusion or “dewatering” is often used during construction, to lower the water table in the immediate area with subsoil drainage or wellpoints and pumps.  Once these measures are stopped, the ground water levels return to their original level.  Granular soils like the coastal sand in this area lend themselves to dewatering as water moves easily through the gaps between each piece of sand (pore spaces).

Permanent exclusion requires a low permeability or impermeable barrier to stop the flow of water within the ground, such as slurry walls, sheet piling, and pile walls.  It is likely that the sandy conditions would require the walls of the cutting to be made from such walls, thereby providing exclusion walls by default (see CFA pile wall pictures below).

 

2. Pile Walls

CFA Continuous flight auger
Step by step section of CFA auger in wet and sandy soil – 1. Drilling Down 2 and 3. Center of auger fills hole with concrete as auger comes up 4. Reinforcing cage (if used) is pushed into hole before concrete sets up.

If the diagram to the left is not clear, there are some great youtube clips showing how CFA piles are contructed:

Piling contractors

These are some of the piles that were used on the McKinnon/Ormond grade separation.  A pile wall was also used on the Springvale grade separation, with the same “water table” issues.  The specific pile and foundation design needed will be a matter for the detailed design team – these notes are intended as general explanation.  We note that CFA piles are particularly suited to wet sand, with minimal noise and vibration.  The installation of piles occurs before any excavation takes place – this allows the work to proceed with minimal ground impact until piling is completed.

Once completed, the piles form a wall which can be safely excavated to the desired depth, although the pile length will go past the excavation depth for design reasons.  A base slab (if required) will then be poured to support the rail, and tie-into the walls. The wall face can then be finished as appropriate with pre-cast panels, shotcrete or cast in place concrete.

Drill rigs at Ormond
Drill rigs working at Ormond grade separation, reinforcing cages in the foreground
springvale grade separation under construction piled walls
Springvale Grade Separation under construction – showing pile walls exposed after excavation and prior to wall finishing.
cfawall
Pile wall after excavation, with a soil anchor at bottom
springvale grade separation under construction
Springvale Grade Separation under construction – following completion of walls and base slab

 

 

 

Links:

There are some great youtube clips about this kind of grade separation being constructed, in “high water level” areas:

And so you can imagine what the non-elevated option might look like here are some other “rail under road” options from the LXRA, in the days before “elevated rail” became the main option being marketed.

3. Flood Water

The track area would be a catchment area requiring drainage for heavy rainstorms. Drainage would be provided by a sump at the low point and possibly intermediate cut-off drains and sump, with sump pumps, pumping to the public drainage system after oil removal. (This is a typical arrangement in high rise basements for instance).

There could also be an opportunity for filtration, storage and re-use of this water for landscaping.

Core Design Assumptions

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Engineering_blueprint_480(See also Site Specific Assumptions in the Crossing Proposals pages, links below)

1. Number of existing rail lines in place - two on the Frankston line, and three at Cheltenham Station (per LXRA Consultation boards). We are unaware of any expansion plans for future additional lines at this time .
2. Railway power is supplied by catenary-style overhead wiring at 1500 volts DC
3. Gauge: 1,600 mm broad gauge.
4. Only those crossings nominated by LXRA will be grade separated – in other words those not  mentioned cannot be changed even if that might be a good engineering decision.
Those 11 crossings are:

- North Road in Ormond – Under Construction (Rail Under Road)
- McKinnon Road in McKinnon – Under Construction (Rail Under Road)
- Centre Road in Bentleigh – Under Construction (Rail Under Road)
- Charman Road, Cheltenham
- Balcombe Road, Mentone
- Edithvale Road, Edithvale
- Station Street/Bondi Road, Bonbeach
- Station Street, Carrum
- Eel Race Road, Carrum
- Seaford Road, Seaford
- Skye/Overton Road, Frankston

5. Track gradient is 2% maximum
6. Depth of excavation / height of ballast, track. Train and clearances: 6m
7. Width of excavation / space for two trains, separation, clearances (without platforms): 12m. (The width of the McKinnon road bridge is about 14m).

Design Assumptions

In Ground Design

Section View

Say NO To Sky Rail (Skyrail) - Frankston Line - Engineering
In Ground Design - Section View

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Say NO To Sky Rail (Skyrail) - Frankston Line - Engineering
In Ground Design - Profile View

The Sky Rail

Section View

Engineering_Concept_Scetch_3_1
Sky Rail - Section View

Profile View

Engineering_Concept_Scetches_4_1
Sky Rail - Profile View